Kotter's 8- Step Change Model
New title: Kotter's 8-Step Change Model as a tool in Program Management
As a program exists in a dynamic environment it is affected by external as well as internal factors this makes it necessary for a program manager to make changes to the program to adapt to changes from the environment. In the program management literature, one find tools to make the decision of change but not many describe how the change has to be implemented in a program successfully without affecting the people in the program.(siger hvem?) When first the decision about making a change is taken the next step is to implement the changes. John P. Kotter has developed a method to implement changes which consist of eight steps. These steps are described in Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model to guide organizations through change. As programs can be seen as temporary organizations. 
Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model can be used to implement changes in a program. This article will present The 8-Step Change Model as well as how to implement the model in a program. Since the model was developed it has been criticized for being inflexible because of its linear nature and Kotter has done further research in the area, therefore, Kotter has made an update to the model called; Eight Accelerators of Change. The updated version has other values than the first which makes the models suitable for different programs and situations.
A programme can be defined as: “ a temporary, flexible organization created to coordinate, direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organization’s strategic objectives. A program is likely to have a life that spans several years.”  A program manager is to lead the temporary organization through the time it exists till it has reached the program’s strategic objectives and benefits.  Leading a program involves being in contact with different stakeholders as each project manager, the project teams, the Program Management Office and the higher management levels and others but a program manager should also have knowledge within program objectives and organizational culture and processes.  A program is affected by internal and external factors; an example could be a change of strategy from the top management which can mean big changes for a program.
Change is in program management theory mentioned as one of the success factors for a program. As a program manager one has to be able to handle changes that can be both minor changes and bigger changes since the many stakeholders, the fast-moving market and the duration of a program make changes inevitable and a program being dynamic.  Since a program manager has to lead many people the program manager has to be able to handle how change affects procedures, costs and other objectives of a program but also how change affects people who are part of a program either as internal or external stakeholders.
People are an important driver of a program and will, therefore, be affected if changes are made in a program. This can affect their work procedures, the meaning of their work and will react if they do not like the changes that have to be made. For this reason, the program manager has to know how to lead people when there are changes to the program. 
Often the people factor is not in focus when a change process is happening but the focus is more on the technical perspective. When looking at literature like The Standard of Program Management and how to handle change in a program, it describes tools that explain how a program manager takes the decision of change but not how the program manager implements changes in the temporary organization. Therefore the following part will describe how the program manager implements major change after the decision of making the change has been taken.
Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model as a tool for managing change in a program
John P. Kotter’s work is seen as some of the most important work within change management building on Kurt Lewin’s three-stage change model from 1947.(Organizational Change: A Review of Theory and Research in the 1990s s. 300) Kotter bases his research on studies of around 100 companies (Buchanan 192). Based on his research he developed The 8-Step Change Model which was published in 1995. It is a model to guide organizations through major change. Since change is an important part of program management. The 8-Step Change Model can be useful for program managers to know how to lead people through change. To use Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model in program management one has to look at a program as defined earlier in this article “A programme is defined as a temporary, flexible organization created to coordinate, direct and oversee the implementation of a set of related projects and activities in order to deliver outcomes and benefits related to the organization’s strategic objectives. A programme is likely to have a life that spans several years.”  For this reason, in this article, the term program will be used but is viewed as a temporary organization. The 8-Step Change Model is divided into steps where the program manager starts with the first step and then follows the steps in the model continuous till all steps are developed and ends with the eights step. The steps a program manager has to follow are Establishing a Sense of Urgency, Forming a Powerful Guiding Coalition, Create a Vision, Communicating the Vision, Empowering Others to Act on the Vision, Planning for and Creating Short-Term Wins, Consolidating Improvements and Producing Still More Change, Institutionalizing New Approaches.
The steps are meant to be initiated top-down in the program and thereafter to be followed in a linear process starting at the first step “Establishing a Sense of Urgency”. Because it is a tool used top-down it is suited for programs having a hierarchical structure and when big changes have to be implemented in the program and not just minor changes since it takes a lot of resources to follow all the steps.  Therefore the model should be used when it is the whole program that has to go through a change and not on project level 
1. Establishing a Sense of Urgency The first step to take in the 8-Step Change Model is to establish a sense of urgency in the program. This means that it should be clear why changes have to be applied now and not in six months. The change has to start from the top and the program manager needs to create urgency for the relevant stakeholders in the program to convince the stakeholders that action has to be taken now since they will be part of the change. Challenges occur in this step if the program manager is not a great leader. Being good at leading people is necessary because it takes a lot of effort to convince people to change. If the Program Manager does not succeed people can be barriers that make the change difficult to make or even impossible.
- Forming a Powerful Guiding Coalition
When the sense of urgency is created a powerful guiding coalition has to be made. This is a group of people who will be the front-runners in the change of the program. This group should not only be the top of the hierarchy but the people should have some part of power in the form of titles, information, expertise, reputations and relationship. The group also have to reach broad in the program so each project has a front-runner so the whole program will change and not only parts of it.
- Create a Vision
The guiding coalition develops a vision for the change together. It is important that this step is done together to make every person in the group feel ownership of the vision to better promote it and not being a barrier. The vision should be clear and possible to explain so the listener understands it and believe in it in five minutes.
- Communicating the Vision
When the vision for the change is made it has to be communicated to the stakeholders. If every person affected by the change is not aware of the vision the change can move in different directions and the chance of success decrease. Change is not easy especially not if sacrifices have to be made therefore the vision has to be communicated in a way so the stakeholders believe in it. For further reading on how to communicate as a program manager look in The Standard of Program Management page 140 
- Empowering Others to Act on the Vision
If stakeholders still do not believe in the vision for the change they can become obstacles which will prevent the change to be a success. In this step of the model, the obstacles have to be handled. This could be making an extra effort to convince a person, relocate the person or fire the person. The obstacles do not have to be people but could also be organizational structures or processes on the operational level in the program. In this step, it is important the program manager is not only good at the technical perspectives of the program but also a good leader 
- Planning for and Creating Short-Term Wins
The saying an elephant should be eaten one bite at a time also comply with this situation. The sixth step in the model tells the practitioners to make short-term wins. This means that the final goal could be far in the future so sub-goals should be made. This should be so managers have clear performance goals  to do so the sub-goals have to be different for every project, or even on lower levels than that depending on how performance goals are made normally.
- Consolidating Improvements and Producing Still More Change
Step seven guides the practitioner not to celebrate too soon but keep being aware of the changes that have to be made. If the front runners celebrate the change too soon the people who have a negative view of the change will be fast to try to stop the change. When victory is declared too soon the reason is often that the first three steps Establishing a Sense of Urgency, Forming a Powerful Guiding Coalition and Create a Vision have not been done in a powerful way and with a clear vision, therefore first steps are important also to succeed in this step. 
- Institutionalizing New Approaches
When a change becomes a part of the culture's mindset the changes are successful and at this point, it is important to make sure if new employees come to the program that they learn the new mindset and not the old one. Read about organizational learning
The process is meant to be followed step by step from the first to the last but the model has been criticized for its linearity.(linking) Each step might not fit in every change process but if not all steps are followed it will not work accordingly. Situations, where steps might not be possible to go through, is if the change is affected by a time limit and therefore the last steps cannot be evaluated. (kritik 14) A program as a temporary organization can last many years but it still might not be long enough to fully implement changes and evaluate it compared to a traditional organization. Especially the first phases of the program tends to be iterative and cyclical (standard 8) implementing a linear process could cause problems especially because changes happen more in the beginning of a program where it happens more iterative and cyclical (teori) Following all the steps of the change model is time consuming both for the program manager but also for people involved in the process this could make program manger's choose another option than the model. The time needed to succeed in the process makes it impossible to use it for small changes and also when changes occur often it is too time-consuming and confusing if stakeholders often have to follow a new vision or more visions at the same time for different change processes. Looking at how fast markets change this model might not be fast enough to follow. (teori) As a program manager trying to follow the model it can be difficult to understand exactly what to do since the model is not very detailed and each step could have many subprocesses (kritik) and further knowledge is needed either from Kotter’s book Leading change from 1996 that describes the 8-Step Change Model further or elsewhere. Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model has many limitations and one would be tempted to use the model just as inspiration and then pick the steps a program manager finds relevant to the program but according to Kotter: “Skipping steps creates only the illusion of speed and never produces a satisfying result” (1) therefore the model is made to be used continuously and are not a guaranty for a successful change process if it is not used in that way.
The Eight Accelerators
Since the development of the 8-Step Change Model Kotter have researched more within the field and developed the model further. The further research within change management has shown a different reality and Kotter has developed a variation of the way an organization can handle change. A lot of companies are becoming less hierarchical and the world is moving even faster,(2) Instead of having a traditional structure of an organization and then using the 8-Step Change Model when big changes have to occur, Kotter suggests an organization to have a dual operating system. This means that besides the formal system that makes an organization work it should have a second operating system meant for design and implementation of a strategy. (2) This second operating system is flexible and able to faster adapt to change so the changes can be implemented. Within the second operating system, eight accelerators exist instead of eight steps. The eight accelerators are
- Create a sense of urgency around a single big opportunity
- Build and maintain a guiding coalition
- Formulate a strategic vision and develop change initiatives designed to capitalize on the big opportunity
- Communicate the vision and the strategy to create buy-in and attract a growing “volunteer army”
- Accelerate movement toward the vision and the opportunity by ensuring that the network removes barriers
- Celebrate visible significant short-term wins
- Never let up. Keep learning from experience. Don’t declare victory too soon
- Institutionalize strategic changes in the culture
Since this method is built on Kotter’s first research it still has eight different points and formulated almost in the same way but should be handled differently. The newest version is called The Eight Accelerators and was published in 2012 in his book Accelerate (https://hbr.org/2012/11/accelerate) the accelerators are working in the second system continuously and not only supposed to happen one time during one big change. Besides not being a linear process this method varies from the 8-Step Change Model by having more people involved in the change. According to Kotter as many people should be involved as possible and do it voluntarily in the new model. (2) It also differentiates because it is meant to work within a network more than a hierarchy which is better suited to the constant changes in the environment around a program.
A program is affected by the constant change and looking at literature in the field it suggests tools to get changes approved by stakeholders but not how to implement big changes in a program when focusing on the people perspective. For a program manager, Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model could be useful to integrate changes. Since the characteristics of the steps of the 8-Step Change Model are that it is a linear process and meant to go from step one to step eight, best suited for hierarchal companies this method could in program management be used when a big change has to occur and the program manager knows where to move from and to. This tool is best suited for programs that have a hierarchical structure. Considering the critique the model might be too linear and time-consuming to apply in a program. Thus a program manager could use the model as a guideline although it is against Kotter’s belief. The updated version of the change model; The Eight Accelerators differ by handling ongoing changes and is better suited for a company that is built on networks and do not have a strongly hierarchical structure. This might make The Eight Accelerators more suited for the way a program work in a fast-changing environment. Therefore the first model might be better to use in one situation where the second is better to use when the program is not strictly hierarchical but affected by ongoing changes.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 "Project Management Institute | 2008 | The Standard for Program Management 2nd ed."
- ↑ 2.00 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05 2.06 2.07 2.08 2.09 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 " Kotter, John P.| 1995 |Leading Change: Why Transformation Efforts Fail. Harvard Business Review pp. 59-67 "
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 " AXELOS, and Cabinet Office | 2011 | Managing Successful Programmes 4th ed."
- ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 "John Hayes | 2014 | The Theory and Practice of Change Management 4th ed."
- ↑ " Kotter, John P.| 2012 | Accelerate. Harvard Business Review pp. 44-58 "